By Andrea Megela Simmons (auth.), Andrea Megela Simmons, Richard R. Fay, Arthur N. Popper (eds.)

In order to speak, animals ship and obtain indications which are topic to their specific anatomical, mental, and environmental constraints. This SHAR quantity discusses either the construction and notion of acoustic indications. Chapters handle the data that animals converse, how the verbal exchange is built and discovered, and the way conversation platforms have tailored and advanced inside of species. The ebook will supply examples from a number of species.

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These sounds have been documented in aggressive and/or reproductive contexts. Longduration signals on the order of seconds to minutes have been more specifically associated with courtship. This includes the boatwhistles of toadfish (Fine et al. 1977), the hums of midshipman (Bass et al. 1999), and the moans of mormyrids (Crawford et al. 1997). , see Crawford et al. 1997; Barimo and Fine 1998; Bass et al. 1999). Most sonic species of teleost fishes are found in shallow water habitats either seasonally or on a perennial basis.

2 sec pulses of broadband noise. Given the very shallow depths for this study, TL values were likely closer to theoretical predictions because of their higherfrequency content. Other studies of transmission loss associated with the propagation of natural sounds will be discussed in a later section. 11. Baleen Whale Acoustics As discussed above, low-frequency sound in deep, temperate water is refracted into a sound channel where transmission loss is on the order of 10 * log10(r). Payne and Webb (1971) hypothesized that the loud, infrasonic sounds of certain balaenopterid whales are adapted to take advantage of this physical acoustic niche.

As with the vocalizations of cetaceans and other vertebrates, those of teleost fishes may vary in a number of parameters, including repetition rate, duration, amplitude, and frequency (see references above). To illustrate the nature of some of this variation, we present examples of the vocal signals from one species, the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus), that has been extensively studied. P. notatus is reproductively active at night in water depths up to 5 m at high tide in some locales (Bass and Marchaterre unpublished).

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