By Shouri Chatterjee, K.P. Pun, Nebojša Stanic, Yannis Tsividis, Peter Kinget
This booklet tackles demanding situations for the layout of analog built-in circuits that function from ultra-low energy provide voltages (down to 0.5V). insurance demonstrates the sign processing circuit and circuit biasing ways during the layout of operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs). those amplifiers are then used to construct analog process capabilities together with non-stop time clear out and a pattern and carry amplifier.
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Extra resources for Analog Circuit Design Techniques at 0.5V (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)
Measurements of the gain and phase response of the body-input OTA, in closed loop, are shown in Fig. 21. The measured output noise in the closed loop is shown in Fig. 22. The initial slope is a result of 1/f noise, the peaking in the noise response close to the gain-bandwidth frequency is because of the low phase margin. Measured results, in all cases, match well with simulations. 25 V less than the power supply. As expected, the OTA worked with unchanged gain-bandwidth product and a little higher current consumption.
The measured open-loop frequency response of the OTA is shown in Fig. 24 for different VNR . The negative resistor bias circuit automatically sets VNR such that the OTA DC gain is 62 dB. These measurements were done for a load resistor of 50 kΩ. The DC gain is expected to be much higher for smaller loading. 25 shows the measured DC input-output transfer characteristics of the gate-input OTA. For larger VNR , hysteresis develops and the gate-input OTA acts like a Schmitt trigger. The measured hysteresis is much larger than simulations (Fig.
B) Basic input stage of a gate-input OTA, using lowVT devices, without access to the bodies of the devices. 7 Summary M gmvgs ro 47 gmbvbs (a) rox || roy MX MY gmxvgsx gmyvgsy (b) Fig. 29: Small-signal circuits for (a) device, M , with front and back gates, and (b) modification using two devices, MX and MY , instead of M . VDD VDD MP MP Vin Vout MN (a) Vamp Vin Vout MN1 MN2 Vamp (b) Fig. 1, and (b) modification, without access to the bodies of the devices. 3 Weak Inversion MOS Varactors for Tunable Integrators1 A tunable integrator is the basic building block of a tunable filter.